Wednesday, September 17, 2014

Click, click, click


We bought our daughter, Shiri, a few alphabet books. I was struck when browsing alphabet books that the examples chosen by the author would not be the same as what I would choose. The books we we had bought were Africa focused which are of course different from the Australian focused alphabet books I grew up with e.g 'K is for kangaroo' etc. 

What I really found strange was the example for the letter 'X'. The example given is 'Xhosa woman'. I really struggled to understand how this was an appropriate example for this particular letter. As far as I can make out, this book is focused on giving uniquely South African examples for the letters of the alphabet but the alphabet used is the English alphabet. When I read the word 'Xhosa' I read it with the Xhosa pronunciation i.e with a lateral click at the beginning of the word. When the word is used as a loan-word or a borrowed word into English, the word is pronounced more like /'ko:sĘŚ/. 

So I was confused. This word, in English, seemed like a better example for the letter 'K' than 'X'. But why was this word even in an English alphabet book? 'Xhosa' isn't an English word. It's a Xhosa word. The letter 'X' doesn't represent the same sound in English and Xhosa. 

I can only assume that this book isn't really trying to be a piece of genuine English educational material but a small insight into the cultural and linguistic diversity in South Africa. In South Africa there are 11 national languages. I live my life primarily in English but have some interactions in Afrikaans but they are limited to just greetings. It's the same for me with Xhosa. But for the majority of South Africans each day is made up of multiple multilingual interactions and actually the far majority is at least bilingual. I have found that most English speakers will pronounce the word 'Xhosa' with a /k/ rather than attempt the click. I can understand the reticence to attempt a foreign consonant but at the same time I do wonder how much this reticence reveals an underlying issue of language status and power. 

It's a funny thing that even though the majority of South African speak Zulu, English is the language of education and government. Most people, like I said above, are at least bilingual but being bilingual in Swazi and Tswana isn't going to get you as far as if you were bilingual in English and Afrikaans. 

I think my discomfort with this example in a children's alphabet book is that it's a deliberate choice to subvert the Xhosa pronunciation and replace it with an English pronunciation of a Xhosa word. I don't find it to be a cute cultural observation but an acute observation of language prestige. It seems like English is presented as superior to Xhosa. 

Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Hamba Kahle, Tata Madiba.

The death of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was quite a shock. Testament to the way my world works now I found out via an Australian friend on Facebook. 

Madiba’s death is crushing to South Africa. I've heard it said that for the Born-Frees (those born in 1994 and afterwards), they know nothing different, but for those who lived throughout Apartheid, they understand that South Africa is now floating free without an anchor. I've read many times people saying that the father of South Africa, the great leader and ‘voice of reason’ has gone. 

Madiba endeavoured to speak to the people as one of the people. He said once, 'If you talk to man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart.'

He also said, 'Without language, one cannot talk to people and understand them; one cannot share their hopes and aspirations, grapes their history, appreciate their poetry, or savour their songs.'

In many ways this just seems like common sense. Of course in order to speak sensibly to someone who need a language that they too understand. But the idea that you can easily and completely communicate in a lingua franca is false. What Mandiba’s first quote reveals is that your language, your first heart language, shapes the way you see the world. To speak in another language is to see the world differently. When you use another language to converse with someone you effectively leave your own headspace and are forced to move into something different and potentially uncomfortable. 

This is evident in the lives of Australians and other monolingual cultures. Language learning is novel and usually seen as unnecessary (since ‘everyone speaks English,’ right?!) But this issue is vastly different and to my mind, fascinating here in South Africa. 

Everyone, really, everyone is somewhat bilingual. And the far majority of the country can probably speak five or more languages. This isn’t novel or unnecessary. It’s very normal and vital to just being able to live here. (That being said, Nathan and I haven’t really learned any other languages although I am learning Sign.)

South Africa has 11 official languages. Being able to speak/understand more than one language is expected but what seems to happen is that language flows around and through people. Conversations are flooded with loan words, loan phrases and entire loan ideas but because people are familiar with so many languages communication is maintained. Perhaps even enriched by all the mixing and jumbling. 

However, what Madiba was pointing out was that however understandable your words are, unless they are in the same worldview and headspace as your recipient’s heart language, you will not able to truly communicate all that you could have. 

This is part of the fundamental drive for Bible translation. Sure the Deaf of South Africa could read an English or Afrikaans Bible (if they actually had an opportunity to go to school and learn those languages) but there will be concepts and gospel truths they will not ever be able to understand completely unless they first see the Bible in South African Sign. Their heads may well be full of knowledge but will their hearts be touched? 

After all, God can sign in South African Sign Language. He can sign in all the 60 odd sign languages throughout the world. Just as Jesus’ hands held those nails on the cross, Jesus’ hands communicate love, grace, forgiveness and salvation in South African Sign language. 


As an extra comment, the SASL interpreter at Madiba's memorial service did not sign anything resembling SASL. It was a terrible disappointment and confirms that there are many live issues involving language status and language politics in South Africa.

Thursday, October 31, 2013

Seeing Voices*

I've been thoroughly enjoying working the Deaf translators as well as being encouraged in my own faith in God. I travel to St James Church in Kenilworth twice a week and work with the team for four hours at a time. Let me tell you what normally happens on a regular working day.

When I arrive I sign, 'Hi' and 'How are you?' to each of the translators (Agnes, Richard and Thabo). They greet me back with, 'Fine' or 'Good'. Then they usually offer me tea. I can sign, 'coffee', 'rooibos tea' and 'hot chocolate'. All very important signs!

We open with prayer. I haven't managed to pray in sign just yet. When the Deaf pray the person praying closes their eyes as they pray. But the rest of the group keep their eyes open to watch the person praying. When I first prayed with the Deaf I, out of habit, bowed my head and closed my eyes. But of course this doesn't work when someone is signing and is actually a very disrespectful action as you are effectively closing down communication. The Deaf often pray in 'one hand' (my terminology!) where everyone prays at the same time. (As an aside, there is a lot to be said about both ways of praying with regards to how public prayer is corporate and mutually encouraging rather than just an individual phone call to God. Being able to watch the person praying forces you to 'listen with your eyes' (there's a single sign for this) just like when one person prays on behalf of a group. While I always enjoy praying in 'one voice/hand' I do wonder what happens to mutual encouragement and the sincere ability to say, 'Amen' at the end.)

The translation process begins and ends with prayer asking God to help us all to understand and translate the Bible well. If we are starting a new passage, we begin by each translator reading the passage in the Easy to Read Version (English). One translator will also read it in the NIV (English) and perhaps in the Xhosa version as well.

The conversation proceeds much like the average home Bible study. The team will ask me about words or concepts they don't understand and we'll all flip around the Bible trying to remember bits and pieces from other parts that help us to interpret the story we are working on. The next stage involves storyboarding the passage.

We have one incredibly talented artist (Thabo) who works diligently to illustrate the story in a very clear, natural and Deaf way. He even draws out the dialogue with little hands! Along the way I'll check what is being drawn and every now and then I'll pipe up with something that the team will need to discuss e.g. theophanies (when God reveals himself to people) are difficult, particularly in Genesis where God and the Angel of the Lord are interchangeable. Drawing 'the Holy Spirit coming down like a dove' from John involved a loooong discussion.

Then the team moves to filming. One person is filmed signing the introduction (the story's title and a few key unknown words and their explanations), one person signs the story and then two people sign a very important little section with some questions and answers. This way each passage is thoroughly dissected and accompanied with helpful titbits much like a study Bible. Thus far the team have translated nine stories from the Old and New Testament. It's an amazing journey to see them grow in their faith and trust in God as they press on. Thrilling work!

*The blog post title is from Oliver Sack's book, 'Seeing Voices'. Amazing and deserving a blog post review of its own in due time.

Saturday, April 13, 2013

Can you see what I'm saying?


I sign 'yes' like I say 'yebo' (Zulu) and 'ewe' (Xhosa) and 'ja' (Afrikaans). Multilingual confusion but it all make sense. In my head at least.

I'm loving working with the Deaf. Just loving it. It's incredibly humbling to be on the bottom of the linguistic food chain again but it's so thrilling when I can sign something and be understood! My colleagues are overwhelmingly accommodating and kind and thankfully can lipread English so it's not as difficult if we had no languages in common. But I'm determined to learn as quickly as I can and not rely on what is called, Total Communication, where you sign in Sign Language but speak (to yourself) in English. It's a bit silly that people do this really, since you're actually communicating in two different languages at once which is impossible if you think about it. One language has to take the dominant role and unfortunately for your Deaf conversation partner, it will be English. But people do this for other Hearing people also involved in the conversation and also for the Deaf to lipread. For myself I do it because I still think in English rather than think in Sign Language. But I'm getting there.

It's also a bit of a total mind shift to work only with my hands to communicate. My language learning skill - mimicking - is not getting used as much. Now it's more deliberate copying than mimicking. I'm not sure if that's a real distinction but that's how it feels to me. It's not such an intuitive aural mirroring. I regularly get confused with my left and right as well as placement of my hands. I can manipulate my voice more easily.

I have about 50 pieces of vocabulary that I can sign and 50 more that I can understand. I can follow a (very!) simple conversation if I know the topic first. And after watching the translators practice Mark 7:31-37 and Mark 2:1-17 over and over and over and over and over and over again, I'm pretty familiar with those stories!

We have long and intense conversations about all sorts of linguistic and theological issues. What is faith? Why doesn't God heal me of my deafness? What kind of head coverings did Pharisees wear? What were the house roofs made of in Capernaum? Were the tax booths like the little huts that security officers use at the entrances to housing estates? How far is Tyre from Sidon from the Decapolis from the Lake of Galilee? And their respective elevations?

I'm so grateful that Shiri loves her babysitter so that I can work with the Deaf on Tuesday and Thursday mornings. It's a hard balance to maintain being a full-time mum and a part-time translation consultant. I did try to bring Shiri along to work since the Deaf wouldn't be able to hear her cry anyway (they didn't mind!) but it didn't work out. She's happier at home where she can run amok and have her babysitter sing to her German as they walk to the beach. Shiri is growing strong and healthy and is a wonder to behold. What a blessed privilege to be a mum. I love it.

Saturday, February 16, 2013

Next step

My Heart's Desire from Wycliffe Global Alliance on Vimeo.

In a few short days I'll be beginning my work with the South African Sign Language Bible translation project. This is both thrilling and terrifying. Right at this moment I'm thinking, 'Who will look after my baby?', 'What on earth do I have to offer to the Deaf community?', 'I never, ever in my wildest dreams thought I'd be learning a Sign language - can I even do that?', 'Arghgh! I need to revise all my Greek and Hebrew paradigms!', 'Must. Read. More'. You know. Stuff like that.

It's all a wild ride of unknowingness, murkiness and glimpses of light along the way - both for me and for the translators as they better understand the Bible, better understand Jesus' love for them and how to best explain that truth to their community.

I'll be working alongside an expert translation consultant from DOOR (Deaf Opportunity OutReach) to continue my consultancy training but this time instead of the orality of the Fwe in Zambia I'll be delving deep into the 'orality' of the Deaf community of South Africa. Yep, another oral language in the sense that it's not 'written down'. Words really fail us here since Sign Language is, of course, not 'oral' but it's not written down with letters and words so the only alternative in the current nomenclature is 'oral'. It's weird to say that though...

We'll be starting off by translating 110 Bible stories that have been carefully selected to tell the whole story of the Bible. The end goal, is of course, the whole thing but by working bit by bit we can share parts of the Bible more readily with the Deaf community. The Bible portions produced will be on a DVD with an actor signing the story and behind them will be storyboards depicting more about the story. You can have a look at some Bible stories already completed here: Deaf Bibles.

I'm working with four native speakers of Sign Language: Richard, Agnes, Thabo and Christopher. It'll be an incredible journey to get to know them better, to learn Sign Language and also to see Jesus transform the lives of the Deaf here in South Africa.

The Fwe are still near and dear to my heart. They always will be. I hear snippets about their progress now and then and I'm so glad to know that they have a consultant who loves them and is working with them to continue the translation of the Gospel of Luke. I miss that work dreadfully. Maybe one day God will make it possible for me to go back to Zambia but for now Shiri needs me front and centre (literally - she's still being breastfed!).

I haven't posted much about motherhood. I'll tell you what, though, it's awesome. It's frustrating. It's rewarding. It's confusing. And it's the best thing I've ever done in my life.

Just before I gave birth I heard a guest at George Whitefield College that becoming a mother was the best thing she had ever done and nonsense from the feminist camp about it destroying yourself was 'bloody stupid'. I didn't understand. But now I do. Being a mum is awesome.

/eating crow. lots of it.

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Taking Stock


Sometimes you just have to stop. Think. And then wonder out loud, 'What the heck am I doing'? We recently had our annual pastoral visit from our mission agency in Australia. We had to fill out a 10+ page questionnaire beforehand which was actually a good chance to just take stock. What are we doing? Where are we doing it? Is it working? Should we be doing something different? Is this what we expected? Are we ok? No, really, are we ok? Or are we just telling people we're ok and in actuality we're floundering?

And most importantly, are we being faithful to God?


Actually. I take that all back.

Sometimes you just have to stop. Think.

God is faithful. No matter what. No matter what I'm doing. No matter if what I'm doing is working. No matter if what I'm doing is what I expected. Or even if it's not. No matter if I feel like I'm ok or if I feel like I'm floundering.

God is faithful.

Thursday, September 6, 2012

My babatjie


I'm in love. I feel like a teenager with fluttery feelings in my tummy. I miss her when I don't see her for a while. I cover her face in kisses when we see each other. I talk incessantly to her (not with her just yet!). I tell everyone how awesome she is. All. The. Time.

Yes, our little daughter arrived on 27th August. Shiri Abigail. Our sweet little daughter's first name is Hebrew for 'my song' from Psalm 28:7, and her second name also has a Hebrew meaning: 'my father's joy'. She brings so much joy and light and happiness to us. We're like love-sick puppies desperate to spend as much time with her as possible. Hanging off her every gurgle and snort. Yes. She snorts. Like a pig. And she sneezes in multiples - like her father.

I had never dreamed to feel this way. Never. The love, the overwhelming feeling of responsibility and expectation. Who is she? What will she do? What will she like and hate? What will make her smile?

It's comforting to know that God already knows. God has already pre-ordained every breath she takes and every day she lives. The name we took so long to choose for her was already chosen by God and will be the name she will have for all eternity.

Hello World. Welcome Shiri.

Friday, August 3, 2012

Savvy?


One of the things that I've struggled with over the past year is language learning. And not in the classic missionary sense of struggling to make myself understood when buying tomatoes down the road at the local market. I mean, I haven't done any. And I'm sad about that. And disappointed.

Learning languages has always been this incredibly fun game for me. I remember the day I came home after having my very first German lesson in year 6. I had learnt how to count and thought it was marvellous fun.

(I should note here that despite being bicultural I'm not bilingual. My mum never taught us any Tagalog/Filipino or any of the other Filipino languages that she knows. She made the very firm decision to bring up her children knowing English perfectly and for her that meant no other languages at home.)

I studied German and Japanese concurrently throughout high school then majored in Spanish at university while continuing my German and Japanese. I took a little bit of Russian after I came back from a mission trip to Azerbaijan because I wanted to go back and work as a missionary in Eastern Europe.

It was fun. It was always fun. I had a language partner for Japanese and we would meet up and eat lamingtons and talk about the Japanese school system. I watched German movies. I made grammar games to teach other people Spanish grammar. By the end of my degree I wasn't fluent or anything like that but I still enjoyed the process. I never enjoyed being pushed to memorise things but I liked being able to understand and have a good guess at what was going on in the other language.

Studying Koine Greek and ancient Hebrew at Moore was exceedingly painful. Learning a dead language is completely different to learning a language you can mimic, watch TV in and generally interact with the associated culture. It's not even nearly the same. Plus I really dislike learning grammar. It was a challenge to fall in love with languages again the year after Bible college but teaching English to overseas students helped me to see the beauty of language and culture again and I was pumped to get overseas and be drenched in that sort of linguistic messiness.

I always assumed that when I eventually did become a missionary I'd fulfil a lifelong goal of becoming fluent in another language. I didn't really care what language. Although I do have an aversion to French. It just sound yuck. Sorry to all the French speakers out there!

In our plans to move to South Africa I was really excited to learn Xhosa once we arrived. The language has clicks, for goodness sake! How much more fun is that!? Or maybe perhaps I'd learn some Afrikaans. I thought I'd definitely learn Fwe since I'd be training the translators in Zambia. Maybe even Lozi, the lingua franca of the Western Province in Zambia. Why not?

But then we got here. And everyone speaks English. The necessity to learn a language didn't exist in Cape Town. Even in Zambia everyone got along just fine in English. And like everyone else, I'm lazy. If I don't need to do it but do need to do other stuff, then of course the unnecessary gets pushed aside.

But this makes me sad.

The language learning process we'd been encouraged to use strongly advocated a language partner to meet up with and practice with. I haven't found one although I do try to immerse myself in Afrikaans at work each day especially with my immediate colleagues who speak Afrikaans as their mother-tongue. But I only know two people who speak Xhosa. I don't interact with anyone really who speaks Zulu nor is there any need at all to speak Zulu in Cape Town (I would if I lived in Durban). I don't need Fwe or Lozi anymore since I've had to put my Zambia trips on hold because of the baby.

I can't blame it all on the situation. I am a lazy bugger when it comes to language learning. No classes/exams = no accountability. No books = no system. No need = couldn't be bothered.

That all being said, I do understand a bit of Afrikaans now. I can't say anything particularly useful but I can pick up contextual clues and mix them with the vocab I do have and have a guess what's going on around me.

New goals? Be a good mum. Do the work I have in front of me with regards to new opportunities in Bible translation. Continue my work with the Explore correspondence programme at GWC. Buy an Afrikaans grammar book and learn something every day.

Friday, December 30, 2011

Ick


I love traveling. I really do. I love seeing new places. Tasting new foods. Learning bits and pieces of new languages. I love watching how people interact and finding out what is taboo and what is normal.

I think, initially, my wanderlust was born from a deep desire to escape all the messed up feelings from when I was much younger. I wanted to move, move out, move away, move afar, move anywhere. Now I see I was the same person away as I was at home. But it’s human to think that a new place is a new chance. The only problem is that you inevitably bring yourself whenever and wherever you move. (Understanding this piece of navel-gazing revelation is probably why I really resonate with Alain de Botton’s ‘The Art of Travel.’)

The only thing I just cannot cope with wherever I am, but particularly in places where my appearance makes me stick out, is the unwanted attention from men. Now, don’t hear me wrong. I’m not fooled into believing that men will fall at my feet in every country I visit, and honestly, they don’t. But I have received my fair share on uncomfortably stares, full body leers (I mean the ones where the imbecilic man looks at me from head to toe and then back up again), wolf-whistles, really gross sexual comments, being cornered in between strange men on a street, and even a boob grab.
 
Please, please hear me out. Every Australian has in inbuilt sense of recognising when someone has tickets on themselves, so talking like this and raising this particular issue with me as the example, makes me self-conscious. But really, c’mon. Men are really feral sometimes. And I hate it. And it gets complicated when you’re in a cross-cultural situation. 

I have a pretty high level of cross-cultural tolerance. I’ll cope with a lot of strange, new, even uncomfortable situations quite happily self-placating my rising terror because I know ‘we’re not in Kansas anymore, Toto.’ Weather, food, dress, language, body language, physical and societal status. Nearly everything.

Except a guy with his hands down his pants leering at me.

Ok, ok. That only happened once. But I really have a very, very low tolerance for gross men. I find it hard to shake off sexual comments and stares. Some people have told me I’m just way too sensitive and probably mis-read signals. Others have told me that gut feelings in this particular area need to be heeded.  But I doubt anyone thinks that my reactions are godly, appropriate or helpful.
 
Because I’m not above giving a guy ‘the finger’, glaring, yelling, swearing, making smart-alec comments or all of the above, all at the same time.  I could just shrug my shoulders and say, ‘Meh, I’m human. I make mistakes’ but I’ve already had at least one person tell me that even if I thought that, it wasn’t appropriate to put it on the internet. That piece of advice obviously hasn’t changed my perspective but I will qualify the ‘meh’ statement.

I know that my over-reactions are over-reactions for a Christian. I’ve never been a victim of a serious sexual assault that would warrant an all out verbal and physical reaction. So I agree with all the voices in my head (well, the Holy Spirit really) who pricks my conscience about these actions. 

But how does one react in a culturally appropriate way?  I’ve been told in some situations it’s perfectly acceptable to yell and shout and berate the man for mistreating his ‘sister’ and how dare he shame her in public.  To not react this way would be to welcome the man’s advances, and actually would be indicating that you were a bit ‘easy’ and keen for more attention.

Glaring at a man in some other situations could get very dangerous, very quickly.

Is ignoring their bad behaviour the better option in most situations? Ignoring it makes me so angry sometimes. Chalking up their behaviour to cross-cultural differences makes me slightly less angry sometimes and even more furious other times.  I guess I react so strongly sometimes because to sweep their actions under the cross-cultural carpet avoids the fact that their behaviour is sin. To disrespect and mistreat a woman because she is a woman is sin, no matter the cultural expectations.

But what avenues are there to address their inappropriate actions in a way that is culturally understood?

Sunday, November 6, 2011

Underprepared



The last two Bible translation workshops have been a dream come true. I've finally been able to use so much of my linguistics degree and my theological degree to help, enthuse and encourage a people group who've never written down their own language before. But at the same time I've been challenged about huge gaps in my knowledge both linguistically and theologically. I suppose this is just part and parcel when you move from the theoretical to the practical and actually work in the field you've been training for. It's been a wondrous ride to persevere in being more professional in my work and also remember that Christ's sacrifice and God's plan for the world is really at the heart of all I do.

Linguistically I've been thinking about practical fieldwork. At university I majored in sociolinguistics. At the time I didn't know the difference between the different linguistic fields but was fortunately able to get a taste of descriptive linguistics in my first year, when we briefly covered morphology, phonetics and semantics. During my first year I also did a week-long introductory course to linguistics with Wycliffe. This was a brilliant course and I'm so glad that I did. I was fully immersed in the practicalities of linguistic analysis, language learning and missionary work that I wasn't learning about at uni. But then for the next 4 years I was back to the politics of language, language status, language policies, conversation analysis, the relationship between language and identity, second language acquisition and in my final year, ESL teacher training. I had nothing to do with raw linguistic data and how to collect it, chart it and analyse it. Until now.



I realised how much I still had to learn when I trying to collect data for the beginnings of a Fwe dictionary and grammar. I actually had no idea how to do either. I had studied lexicography (dictionary making) in my fourth year at Moore College so I was familiar with the ideas of semantic domains. That seemed to be the most sensible way to make a dictionary because alphabetically work was impossible since their alphabet was still in draft form. Collecting data for a grammar was like nails on a blackboard. I've never been one for detailed grammatical analysis, and always resist grammar when doing language learning and even when doing language teaching. So I struggled to find patterns and come up with ways to elicit more information from the Fwe.

Theologically I realised that by simply saying, 'I'm a reformed, evangelical, Protestant' only made sense to other reformed, evangelical Protestants. Ecumenicalism is necessary when doing this kind of work since the Bible is denomination-less. But there *are* different denominations. To ignore the differences and say that 'we're all on about Jesus' is quite condescending in many ways. Celebrating differences can also be problematic when one denomination wants different things from different people to the detriment of team unity and team focus.

I think the best way is to really understand what you believe and know how to express it well. I've found numerous situations in which it's been oh, so, clearly, obvious that I'm the only one who thinks the way I think, and I need to explain myself to everyone else. Most times I fail. I then go to my bungalow, think, pray and read and come up with a better explanation that I wish I had known an hour previously. It's all growth, though. A little humiliating at times, but growth nonetheless. I am glad that I'm here again in Mongu but again feel like I'm underprepared and ill-equipped for this job. But I am also glad that God is in control, God is the one who directed me to this task and God is the one who will make all things work to his glory. All I have to do is be faithful and trust him.